Year 2 — Human Systems / Pathophysiology

Building on the foundation of science of Year 1, the second-year curriculum includes two longitudinal courses: Human Systems, and Oral Pathology and Radiology. Each course provides an understanding of the correlation between structural and functional changes in disease and the manifestation of these changes at the clinical level. Tutorials are included in each course.

The year begins with a two- week introduction to pharmacology. This foundation is reinforced throughout the year as pharmacology is woven through the year-long Human Systems course. With the course organized in modules of varying length, students learn the cause, impact, and the changes disease generate in the body, emphasizing the disruption to different organs and systems. Neurologic, orthopedic, rheumatologic, dermatologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, and reproductive-organ systems are studied. Pharmacology and nutrition content is included in the study of these organ systems, as well as their relationship to topics in the second-year Patient-Doctor II and Psychopathology courses.

Similarly, the dental Oral Pathology and Radiology and Orofacial Pain courses are designed to familiarize students with the etiology, radiology, and pathogenesis of major oral diseases as well as their radiographic manifestations, associated laboratory findings, and microscopic features. In the recognition of these abnormalities, students acquire a working understanding of infectious viral, fungal, and bacterial oral diseases. The etiological factors of caries, pulp, periapical and periodontal disease, neoplasia, hereditary and autoimmune disorders, oral manifestations of systemic disorders, salivary and sinus pathoses, and fibroosseous disease are addressed. This understanding is critical to the development of differential diagnoses and strategies for initial case management.

The year concludes at the end of March and the Principal Clinical Experience begins.